Citation and credits
All materials provided in this website are free to view, download and use, under the terms of Licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Please cite the data as follows:
Human Multiple Births Database (Year). French Institute for Demographic Studies - INED (distributor). Extracted from: https://www.twinbirths.org (day/month/year).
If the data used come from a single source, please cite as follows:
[Original data source, e.g. INSEE]. Data obtained via the Human Multiple Births Database. French Institute for Demographic Studies - INED (distributor). Extracted from: https://www.twinbirths.org (day/month/year).
Please consult the original data sources for further information on data usage and the appropriate citation.
We thank the national statistical offices for providing the data and documentation. We are also grateful to their experts, who helped clarify the data and metadata:
Australia The Australian Bureau of Statistics
Austria Statistics Austria
Canada Statistics Canada
Czech Republic Czech Statistical Office
Denmark Statistics Denmark
Finland Statistics Finland
Germany Statistisches Bundesamt
Iceland Statistics Iceland
Lithuania Statistics Lithuania
New Zealand Statistics New Zealand
Netherlands Statistics Netherlands
Norway Statistics Norway
Republic of Korea Statistics Korea
Sweden Statistics Sweden
Switzerland Federal Statistical Office
UK - England and Wales Office for National Statistics
UK - Scotland National Records of Scotland
Uruguay Ministerio de Salud Pública
We are also grateful to researchers in certain universities, for their help and support with the historical data for some countries.
- Operations: Catalina Torres, Gilles Pison, Arianna Caporali
- Scientific advisory board: Arianna Caporali, Paul Jabert, Elise de La Rochebrochard, Carolyn Lister, France Meslé, Christiaan Monden, Samuel Pavard, Gilles Pison, Monica Rankin, Jeroen Smits, Catalina Torres
The HMBD is a joint project between the French Museum of Natural History (Muséum national d’histoire naturelle) and the French Institute for Demographic Studies (Institut national d’études démographiques, INED), in partnership with the International Council of Multiple Birth Organisations (ICOMBO) and Fédération Jumeaux et Plus.
This project is financed by the French research agency -- Agence nationale de la recherche, ANR (Convention ANR - 18-CE36-0007-01).