Citation and credits

Recommended citation

All materials provided in this website are free to view, download and use, under the terms of Licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

Please cite the data as follows: 

Human Multiple Births Database (Year). French Institute for Demographic Studies - INED (distributor). Extracted from: (day/month/year).


If the data used come from a single source, please cite as follows: 

[Original data source, e.g. INSEE]. Data obtained via the Human Multiple Births Database. French Institute for Demographic Studies - INED (distributor). Extracted from: (day/month/year).

Please consult the original data sources for further information on data usage and the appropriate citation. 


We thank the national statistical offices for providing the data and documentation. We are also grateful to their experts, who helped clarify the data and metadata:  

Australia The Australian Bureau of Statistics

Austria Statistics Austria

Canada Statistics Canada

Chile Instituto nacional de estadísticas

Czech Republic Czech Statistical Office

Denmark Statistics Denmark

Finland Statistics Finland

France INSEE

Germany Statistisches Bundesamt

Greece Hellenic Statistical Authority

Iceland Statistics Iceland

Italy ISTAT and Ministerio della Salute

Japan Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare

Lithuania Statistics Lithuania

New Zealand Statistics New Zealand

Netherlands Statistics Netherlands

Norway Statistics Norway

Republic of Korea Statistics Korea

Spain Instituto nacional de estadística

Sweden Statistics Sweden

Switzerland Federal Statistical Office

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Center for Health Statistics

UK - England and Wales Office for National Statistics

UK - Scotland National Records of Scotland

Uruguay Ministerio de Salud Pública


 We are also grateful to researchers in certain universities, for their help and support with the historical data for some countries.

Contact us

Website team

  • Operations: Catalina Torres, Gilles Pison, Arianna Caporali
  • Scientific advisory board: Arianna Caporali, Paul Jabert, Elise de La Rochebrochard, Carolyn Lister, France Meslé, Christiaan Monden, Samuel Pavard, Gilles Pison, Monica Rankin, Jeroen Smits, Catalina Torres


The HMBD is a joint project between the French Museum of Natural History (Muséum national d’histoire naturelle) and the French Institute for Demographic Studies (Institut national d’études démographiques, INED), in partnership with the International Council of Multiple Birth Organisations (ICOMBO) and Fédération Jumeaux et Plus


This project is financed by the French research agency -- Agence nationale de la recherche, ANR (Convention ANR - 18-CE36-0007-01).